This benchmark was prepared based on
external documents
using
SDC for Femap and Simcenter Femap Version 2022.2
This benchmark demonstrates how to determine the utilization factors of joints with RHS chords and Ibeam/RHS braces using SDC Verifier according to Eurocode 3 EN 199318 (2005). For this analysis, six specific joint configurations have been considered. Detailed material, geometric properties and weld specifications are provided. Loads and constraints applied to the model are outlined, and the rationale for weld configuration choices is described.
Analysis Overview
The analysis focuses on a common structural detail: an Ibeam or RHS brace connecting to a main structural member (chord) at a defined angle, typically 45 degrees. The calculations involve:
 Material and geometric properties: including yield strength, crosssectional dimensions, and joint angle.
 Weld parameters: types, sizes, and calculation methods.
 Applied loads and constraints: boundary conditions simulating realworld loading.
 Stress analysis: determination of stresses in the welds and brace members.
 Utilization factors: calculated to assess whether welds and brace members can withstand the applied loads.
Software Tools
 SDC Verifier: A structural analysis software specifically designed for the verification of steel connections and joints according to industry standards, including Eurocode 3.
Materials and Properties
For the purpose of this benchmark the following 6 configurations of joints have been chosen:
Detailed information about the material and section geometry can be seen below as presented in SDC Verifier:
Mild Steel
Property  Value 
Elements  90 
Mass [kg]  1832.16 
Gravity Center (CSys: 0) [m]  [4.13; 1.21; 0.00] 
Young Modulus [Pa]  200000000000 
Shear Modulus [Pa]  80000000000 
Poisson Ratio  0.3 
Shear [Pa]  0 
Mass Density [kg/m^3]  7850 
Tensile Strenght [Pa]  470000000.00 
Yield Stress [Pa]  355000000.00 
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RHS 350x250x12.5
Property  Value 
Type  Beam / 60 
Material  Mild Steel 
Mass [kg]  1354.13 
Gravity Center [m]  [4.00; 1.00; 0.00] 
Area, [m²]  0.01 
11, [m⁴]  2.496E04 
12, [m⁴]  1.472E04 
112, [m⁴]  0 
Torsion Constant, [m⁴]  2.858E04 
Y Shear Area, [m²]  0.01 
Z Shear Area, [m²]  4.930E03 
Nonstructural Mass, [kg]  0 
Perimeter, [m]  1.2 
Warping Constant, [m⁶]  0 
Y Neutral Axis Offset A, [m]  0 
Z Neutral Axis Offset A, [m]  0 
h [m]  0.35 
w [m]  0.25 
t [m]  0.01 
IPE 300
Property  Value 
Type  Beam / 15 
Material  Mild Steel 
Mass [kg]  145.35 
Gravity Center [m]  [4.49; 0.43; 0.00] 
Area, [m²]  0.01 
11, [m⁴]  7,999E05 
12, [m⁴]  6.027E06 
112, [m⁴]  0 
Torsion Constant, [m⁴]  1.569E07 
Y Shear Area, [m²]  2.020E03 
Z Shear Area, [m²]  3.166E03 
Nonstructural Mass, [kg]  0 
Perimeter, [m]  1.19 
Warping Constant, [m⁶]  0 
Y Neutral Axis Offset A, [m]  0 
Z Neutral Axis Offset A, [m]  0 
h [m]  0.3 
wt [m]  0.15 
wb [m]  0.15 
tf2 [m]  0.01 
tw [m]  0.01 
tf1 [m]  0.01 
RHS 300x200x12.5
Property  Value 
Type  Beam / 60 
Material  Mild Steel 
Mass [kg]  332.69 
Gravity Center [m]  [4.49; 2.43; 0.00] 
Area, [m²]  0.01 
11, [m⁴]  1.467E04 
12, [m⁴]  7.718E05 
112, [m⁴]  0 
Torsion Constant, [m⁴]  1.572E04 
Y Shear Area, [m²]  0.01 
Z Shear Area, [m²]  3.864E03 
Nonstructural Mass, [kg]  0 
Perimeter, [m]  1 
Warping Constant, [m⁶]  0 
Y Neutral Axis Offset A, [m]  0 
Z Neutral Axis Offset A, [m]  0 
h [m]  0.3 
w [m]  0.2 
t [m]  0.01 
The analysis focuses on a joint where an Ibeam brace connects to a chord (main structural member) at a 45degree angle.
Key Dimensions and Properties

Chord Section
 Inplane height: 350 mm
 Outofplane widht: 250 mm
 Thickness (flange and web): 12.5 mm

Brace Section
 Inplane height: 424.26 mm
 Outofplane widht: 150 mm
 Flange thickness: 10.7 mm
 Web thickness: 7.1 mm
Material Properties
 The chord and brace have identical yield strengths of 355 MPa.
 The allowable weld stress is based on EN 199318 and has an ultimate strength of 470 MPa, while SDC Verifier takes the minimum tensile strenght of all the connected parts.
Loads and Constraints
Loads and constraints have been defined as follows:
Loads
Definition  Load Type  Applied On  Values 
Ibeam Z 3 kN  Force  Points: 6, 12, 18  (0; 0; 3000) 
RHS Z 15 kN  Force  Points: 24, 30, 36  (0; 0; 15000) 
90deg X 20 kN  Force  Points: 6, 24  (20000; 0; 0) 
45deg Y 20 kN  Force  Points: 12, 30  (0; 20000; 0) 
30deg Y 15 kN  Force  Points: 18, 36  (0; 15000; 0) 
90deg Y 1.5 kNm  Moment  Points: 6, 24  (0; 1500; 0) 
Constraints
Definition  Count  DOF 
Left, Pinned  Points: 1, 7, 13, 19, 25, 3  Tx Ty Tz Rx 
Right, Pinned with T  Points: 4, 10, 16, 22, 28, 34  Ty Tz Rx 
The stress levels and utilization factors of the brace welds are checked in four most critical locations for Ibeam braces and in three for RHS braces according to the graph below:
Weld Types and Sizes
The definitions of these points are used to define the weld types and sizes of the designed joint, these can be done in an additional window when adding the standard to the project. The following types and sizes have been chosen:
Weld Configuration
 Flange Welds:
 Outer side: Flare bevel weld
 Inner side: Partial penetration weld
 Web Welds
 Both left and right sides: Partial penetration weld combined with a fillet weld.
Weld Dimensions (mm)
 Flanges
 Outer weld size: 5 mm
 Inner weld size: 5 mm
 Web
 Left weld size: Throat Size – 5 mm, Penetration Depth – 3 mm
 Right weld size: Throat Size – 5 mm, Penetration Depth – 3 mm
Throat Thickness for Combined Welds (mm)
 Automatic calculation is used for determining the effective throat thickness of partial penetration plus fillet weld combinations.
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Two additional parameters have to be defined when adding the standard – the Correlation Factor ?_{?} and the partial safety factor y_{m2}:
In this case the value of ?_{?2} has been defined as 1.3 according to Norsok N004. In the case of Eurocode 3 EN 199311 the suggested value is 1.25 (which is also the default value when adding the standard).
Weld Stress Considerations
 Ultimate Strength: The weld material has an ultimate strength of 470 MPa (based on EN 199318).
 Correction Factor: A weld correction factor of 0.9 is applied.
 Material Factor: A weld material factor of 1.3 is used (in line with Norsok N004 guidelines).
The loads at the brace weld crosssection that result from the applied boundary conditions can be checked in Check ID3 “Forces and Moments”:
Standard  2.. Eurocode3 Welds 1D (EN 199318, 2005)  Check  [S2] 
Load Set  LS1..Loads  Selection  All Entities 
Title  Axial Force X [N]  QP Shear Force [N]  IP Shear Force [N]  Force Torque [Nm]  IPB Moment [Nm]  OPB Moment [Nm] 
Case 4 RHS90  0  15000  20000  1500  20000  15000 
Case 5 RHS45  14142.14  15000.01  14142.14  0  20000.01  21213.22 
Case 6  7500  15000.02  12990.4  0  15000.02  17320.52 
Case 1190 RHS30  0  3000  20000  1500  20000  3000 
Case 2145  14142.14  3000.00  14142.14  0.00  20000.01  4242.64 
Case 3130  7500  3000  12990.4  0  15000.02  3464.1 
AbsMax over Connections  14142.14  15000.02  20000  1500  20000.01  21213.22 
Loads on the Brace Weld CrossSection
The brace weld experiences various forces and moments. Here’s a breakdown, keeping in mind that the coordinate system defines “z” as up and “y” as to the side:
Forces:
 Force in the xaxis (F_x): 14142.14 N
 Force in the yaxis (F_y): 3000 N
 Force in the zaxis (F_z): 14142.14 N
Moments:
 Bending moment about the yaxis (M_y): 20000 Nm
 Bending moment about the zaxis (M_z): 4242.64 Nm
 Torsional moment about the xaxis (M_x): 0 Nm (doesn’t exist in this case)
Results
The normal and equivalent stress capacities, as well as normal and equivalent maximum weld stresses for both brace flange and brace web welds can be checked in Check ID8 “Weld Stresses”:
Standard  2.. Eurocode3 Welds 1D (EN 199318, 2005)  Check  [S2] 
Load Set  LS1..Loads  Selection  All Entities 
Title  Weld Ultimate Tensile Strength [Pa]  Weld Normal Stress Capacity [Pa]  Weld Equivalent Stress Capacity [Pa]  Max sigma_1 Brace Welds [Pa]  Max sigma_EQ Brace Welds [Pa]  Max sigma_1 Brace Web [Pa]  Max sigma_EQ Brace Web [Pa] 
Case 4 RHS90  4.70E+08  325.4E+08  401.7E+6  15.3E+6  32.3E+6  15.3E+6  30.9E+6 
Case 5 RHS45  4.70E+08  325.4E+08  401.7E+6  88.4E+6  88.4E+6  62.3E+6  124.6E+6 
Case 6 RHS30  4.70E+08  325.4E+08  401.7E+6  49.5E+6  51.2E+6  49.5E+6  49.7E+6 
Case 1 I90  4.70E+08  325.4E+08  401.7E+6  2.9E+06  129.7E+6  25.3E+6  125.5E+6 
Case 2 I45  4.70E+08  325.4E+08  401.7E+6  83.2E+6  83.2E+6  21.8E+6  43.7+6 
Case 3 I30  4.70E+08  325.4E+08  401.7E+6  30.1E+6  30.2E+6  13.3E+6  15.1E+6 
AbsMax over Connections  4.70E+08  325.4E+08  401.7E+6  88.0E+6  129.7E+6  62.3E+6  125.5E+6 
Weld Stress Analysis Results
 Brace Flange:
 Maximum normal stress is 83.2 MPa.
 Maximum equivalent stress has the same value, 83.2 MPa.
 Brace Web
 Maximum normal stress is at 21.8 MPa.
 Maximum equivalent stress is calculated at 43.7 MPa.
If to look for potential causes of stress overshoots the individual stress components for all points can be checked in Checks ID4 to ID7.
Finally, the utilization factors can be checked in check ID9:
Standard  2.. Eurocode3 Welds 1D (EN 199318, 2005)  Check  [S2] 
Load Set  LS1..Loads  Selection  All Entities 
Title  UF_N Brace Flange  UF_EQ Brace Flange  UF_N Brace Web  UF_EQ Brace Web  UF_IBeam  UF_RHS  UF Overall 
Case 4 RHS90  0.05  0.08  0.05  0.08  0  0.08  0.08 
Case 5 RHS45  0.27  0.22  0.19  0.31  0  0.31  0.31 
Case 6 RHS30  0.15  0.13  0.15  0.12  0  0.15  0.15 
Case 1 190  0.01  0.32  0.08  0.31  0.32  0  0.32 
Case 2 145  0.26  0.21  0.07  0.11  0.26  0  0.26 
Case 3 130  0.09  0.08  0.04  0.04  0.09  0  0.09 
AbsMax over Connections  0.27  0.32  0.19  0.31  0.32  0.31  0.32 
Values highlighted are passing the check (Uf < 1). The results can also be plotted on the model.
Weld Utilization Summary
 Brace Flange:
 Maximum normal stress utilization: 0.26
 Maximum equivalent stress utilization: 0.21
 Brace Web:
 Maximum normal stress utilization: 0.07
 Maximum equivalent stress utilization: 0.11
Key Observation: Weld utilization values are within acceptable limits, as indicated by “OK=1” for both sections.
As we can see the results agree completely with the external documents, they do so as well for the 5 other cases not presented in this document, but can be shown on demand.
Conclusion
The benchmark successfully demonstrates the calculation of joint utilization factors using SDC Verifier. The results, including weld stress levels, utilization factors, and individual stress components, are provided. The analysis indicates that the chosen weld configurations for the six presented joint cases satisfy the strength requirements with acceptable safety margins, as the utilization factors (Uf) are below 1. According to Eurocode 3 EN 199318 (2005), the analysis methodology and design criteria employed in this benchmark are in compliance with the relevant standards for steel joint connections.